Design Docs‎ > ‎Case Mappings‎ > ‎

Greek Uppercasing

References

http://bugs.icu-project.org/trac/ticket/5456 “Uppercase formatting option results in accented capital letters - Invalid for Greek”

http://bugs.icu-project.org/trac/ticket/7423 “Modern Greek uppercasing behavior is to strip accents from Greek characters”

http://unicode.org/cldr/trac/ticket/1493 “Consider having transliterator for title/uppercasing Greek” (Copy of ICU ticket #5456)

http://unicode.org/cldr/trac/ticket/7905 “Greek and Irish uppercasing : review what Mozilla does ?”

http://crbug.com/413872 “Review Mozilla's Greek and Irish case transform for CSS text-transform”

http://crbug.com/234797 “text-transform: uppercase should not preserve accents for Greek in most cases.”

https://bugs.mageia.org/show_bug.cgi?id=5755 “Accents in capital letters during the installation (Greek)”

http://multilingualtypesetting.co.uk/blog/greek-typesetting-tips/ “Greek typesetting without the tears”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_diacritics#Position_in_letters

  • When a word is written entirely in capital letters, diacritics are far less used; the word Ἢ (or), is an exception to this rule because of the need to distinguish it from the nominative feminine article Η. Diacritics can be found above capital letters in medieval texts. The diaeresis is always written.
  • The acute is also used on the last of two (or occasionally three) successive vowels in Modern Greek …
  • See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greek_accent

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capitalization#Accents

  • However, in the polytonic orthography used for Greek prior to 1982, accents were omitted in all-uppercase words, but kept as part of an uppercase initial (written before rather than above the letter). The latter situation is provided for by title-case characters in Unicode. When Greek is written with the present day monotonic orthography, where only the acute accent is used, the same rule is applied. The accent is omitted in all-uppercase words but it is kept as part of an uppercase initial (written before the letter rather than above it). The dialytika (diaeresis) should also always be used in all-uppercase words (even in cases where they are not needed when writing in lowercase, e.g. ΑΫΛΟΣ-άυλος).

https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=307039 “Greek text not converted correctly to Small-Caps.”

Unicode Greek: http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode8.0.0/ch07.pdf

http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0370.pdf

http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0300.pdf

Prototype code

// © 2016 and later: Unicode, Inc. and others.
// License & terms of use: http://www.unicode.org/copyright.html#License

package com.ibm.icu.dev.test.lang;

import java.util.Map;
import java.util.TreeMap;

import com.ibm.icu.impl.UCaseProps;
import com.ibm.icu.impl.Utility;
import com.ibm.icu.lang.UCharacter;
import com.ibm.icu.text.Normalizer2;
import com.ibm.icu.text.UTF16;
import com.ibm.icu.text.UnicodeSet;
import com.ibm.icu.util.ULocale;

public class GreekUpper {
    /**
     * Excludes Phonetic Extensions blocks.
     * Excludes U+AB65 (small cap Omega, "Letters for Americanist orthographies")
     * which does not case-map.
     * Includes U+2126 OHM SIGN.
     */
    private static final UnicodeSet GREEK_LETTERS =
            new UnicodeSet("[[:Grek:]&[:L:]-[\u1D00-\u1DBF\uAB65]]").freeze();
    private static final UnicodeSet GREEK_BASE_VOWELS =
            new UnicodeSet().addAll("αΑεΕηΗιΙοΟωΩυΥϵ").freeze();

    private static final Map<Integer, Integer> GREEK_LETTER_DATA =
            new TreeMap<Integer, Integer>();

    private static final ULocale GREEK_LOCALE = new ULocale("el");

    // Data bits.
    private static final int UPPER_MASK = 0x3ff;
    private static final int HAS_VOWEL = 0x1000;
    private static final int HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI = 0x2000;
    private static final int HAS_ACCENT = 0x4000;
    private static final int HAS_DIALYTIKA = 0x8000;
    // Further bits during data building and processing, not stored in the data map.
    private static final int HAS_COMBINING_DIALYTIKA = 0x10000;
    private static final int HAS_OTHER_GREEK_DIACRITIC = 0x20000;

    private static final int HAS_VOWEL_AND_ACCENT = HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT;
    private static final int HAS_VOWEL_AND_ACCENT_AND_DIALYTIKA =
            HAS_VOWEL_AND_ACCENT | HAS_DIALYTIKA;
    private static final int HAS_EITHER_DIALYTIKA = HAS_DIALYTIKA | HAS_COMBINING_DIALYTIKA;

    // State bits.
    private static final int AFTER_CASED = 1;
    private static final int AFTER_VOWEL_WITH_ACCENT = 2;

    private static final void printCodePointData(int c) {
        Integer data = GREEK_LETTER_DATA.get(c);
        printCodePointData(c, data == null ? 0 : data);
    }

    private static final void printCodePointData(int c, int data) {
        if (data == 0) {
            System.out.println("0,");
            return;
        }
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder("0x");
        sb.append(Utility.hex(data & UPPER_MASK, 4));
        if ((data & HAS_VOWEL) != 0) {
            sb.append(" | HAS_VOWEL");
        }
        if ((data & HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI) != 0) {
            sb.append(" | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI");
        }
        if ((data & HAS_ACCENT) != 0) {
            sb.append(" | HAS_ACCENT");
        }
        if ((data & HAS_DIALYTIKA) != 0) {
            sb.append(" | HAS_DIALYTIKA");
        }
        sb.append(",  // ").append(UTF16.valueOf(c));
        System.out.println(sb.toString());
    }

    /**
     * Returns a non-zero value for each of the Greek combining diacritics
     * listed in The Unicode Standard, version 8, chapter 7.2 Greek,
     * plus some perispomeni look-alikes.
     */
    private static final int getDiacriticData(int c) {
        switch (c) {
        case '\u0300':  // varia
        case '\u0301':  // tonos = oxia
        case '\u0342':  // perispomeni
        case '\u0302':  // circumflex can look like perispomeni
        case '\u0303':  // tilde can look like perispomeni
        case '\u0311':  // inverted breve can look like perispomeni
            return HAS_ACCENT;
        case '\u0308':  // dialytika = diaeresis
            return HAS_COMBINING_DIALYTIKA;
        case '\u0344':  // dialytika tonos
            return HAS_COMBINING_DIALYTIKA | HAS_ACCENT;
        case '\u0345':  // ypogegrammeni = iota subscript
            return HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI;
        case '\u0304':  // macron
        case '\u0306':  // breve
        case '\u0313':  // comma above
        case '\u0314':  // reversed comma above
        case '\u0343':  // koronis
            return HAS_OTHER_GREEK_DIACRITIC;
        default:
            return 0;
        }
    }

    private static void init() {
        Normalizer2 nfc = Normalizer2.getNFCInstance();
        int maxUpper = 0;
        for (UnicodeSet.EntryRange range : GREEK_LETTERS.ranges()) {
            for (int c = range.codepoint; c <= range.codepointEnd; ++c) {
                String decomp = nfc.getDecomposition(c);
                int first;
                if (decomp == null) {
                    first = c;
                } else {
                    first = decomp.codePointAt(0);
                }
                // Uppercase without diacritics.
                int upper = UCharacter.toUpperCase(first);
                assert upper <= UPPER_MASK;
                if (upper > maxUpper) {
                    maxUpper = upper;
                }
                int data = upper;
                if (GREEK_BASE_VOWELS.contains(first)) {
                    data |= HAS_VOWEL;
                }
                if (decomp != null) {
                    for (int i = Character.charCount(first); i < decomp.length(); ++i) {
                        data |= getDiacriticData(decomp.charAt(i));
                    }
                    if ((data & HAS_COMBINING_DIALYTIKA) != 0) {
                        data |= HAS_DIALYTIKA;
                    }
                    data &= 0xffff;  // Remove temporary flags, limit to 16 bits.
                }
                GREEK_LETTER_DATA.put(c, data);
            }
        }
        System.out.println("max upper without diacritics: U+" + Utility.hex(maxUpper, 4));

        System.out.println("// U+0370..03FF");
        for (int c = 0x370; c <= 0x3ff; ++c) {
            printCodePointData(c);
        }
        System.out.println("// U+1F00..1FFF");
        for (int c = 0x1f00; c <= 0x1fff; ++c) {
            printCodePointData(c);
        }
        System.out.println("// U+2126");
        printCodePointData(0x2126);

        // Just in case.
        for (Map.Entry<Integer, Integer> entry : GREEK_LETTER_DATA.entrySet()) {
            int c = entry.getKey();
            if (!(0x370 <= c && c <= 0x3ff) && !(0x1f00 <= c && c <= 0x1fff) && c != 0x2126) {
                System.out.println("// U+" + Utility.hex(c));
                printCodePointData(c, entry.getValue());
            }
        }
    }

    private static boolean isFollowedByCasedLetter(CharSequence s, int i) {
        while (i < s.length()) {
            int c = Character.codePointAt(s, i);
            int type = UCaseProps.INSTANCE.getTypeOrIgnorable(c);
            if ((type & 4) != 0) {
                // Case-ignorable, continue with the loop.
            } else if (type != UCaseProps.NONE) {
                return true;  // Followed by cased letter.
            } else {
                return false;  // Uncased and not case-ignorable.
            }
        }
        return false;  // Not followed by cased letter.
    }

    private static String toUpper(CharSequence s) {
        StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder(s.length());
        int[] locCache = new int[1];
        int state = 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < s.length();) {
            int c = Character.codePointAt(s, i);
            int nextIndex = i + Character.charCount(c);
            int nextState = 0;
            int type = UCaseProps.INSTANCE.getTypeOrIgnorable(c);
            if ((type & 4) != 0) {
                // c is case-ignorable
                nextState |= (state & AFTER_CASED);
            } else if (type != UCaseProps.NONE) {
                // c is cased
                nextState |= AFTER_CASED;
            }
            if (GREEK_LETTERS.contains(c)) {
                int data = GREEK_LETTER_DATA.get(c);
                int upper = data & UPPER_MASK;
                // Add a dialytika to this iota or ypsilon vowel
                // if we removed a tonos from the previous vowel,
                // and that previous vowel did not also have (or gain) a dialytika.
                // Adding one only to the final vowel in a longer sequence
                // (which does not occur in normal writing) would require lookahead.
                // Set the same flag as for preserving an existing dialytika.
                if ((data & HAS_VOWEL) != 0 && (state & AFTER_VOWEL_WITH_ACCENT) != 0 &&
                        (upper == 'Ι' || upper == 'Υ')) {
                    data |= HAS_DIALYTIKA;
                }
                int numYpogegrammeni = 0;  // Map each one to a trailing, spacing, capital iota.
                if ((data & HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI) != 0) {
                    numYpogegrammeni = 1;
                }
                // Skip combining diacritics after this Greek letter.
                while (nextIndex < s.length()) {
                    int diacriticData = getDiacriticData(s.charAt(nextIndex));
                    if (diacriticData != 0) {
                        data |= diacriticData;
                        if ((diacriticData & HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI) != 0) {
                            ++numYpogegrammeni;
                        }
                        ++nextIndex;
                    } else {
                        break;  // not a Greek diacritic
                    }
                }
                if ((data & HAS_VOWEL_AND_ACCENT_AND_DIALYTIKA) == HAS_VOWEL_AND_ACCENT) {
                    nextState |= AFTER_VOWEL_WITH_ACCENT;
                }
                // Map according to Greek rules.
                boolean addTonos = false;
                if (upper == 'Η' &&
                        (data & HAS_ACCENT) != 0 &&
                        numYpogegrammeni == 0 &&
                        (state & AFTER_CASED) == 0 &&
                        !isFollowedByCasedLetter(s, nextIndex)) {
                    // Keep disjunctive "or" with (only) a tonos.
                    // We use the same "word boundary" conditions as for the Final_Sigma test.
                    if (i == nextIndex) {
                        upper = 'Ή';  // Preserve the precomposed form.
                    } else {
                        addTonos = true;
                    }
                } else if ((data & HAS_DIALYTIKA) != 0) {
                    // Preserve a vowel with dialytika in precomposed form if it exists.
                    if (upper == 'Ι') {
                        upper = 'Ϊ';
                        data &= ~HAS_EITHER_DIALYTIKA;
                    } else if (upper == 'Υ') {
                        upper = 'Ϋ';
                        data &= ~HAS_EITHER_DIALYTIKA;
                    }
                }
                result.appendCodePoint(upper);
                if ((data & HAS_EITHER_DIALYTIKA) != 0) {
                    result.append('\u0308');  // restore or add a dialytika
                }
                if (addTonos) {
                    result.append('\u0301');
                }
                while (numYpogegrammeni > 0) {
                    result.append('Ι');
                    --numYpogegrammeni;
                }
            } else {
                c = UCaseProps.INSTANCE.toFullUpper(c, null, result, GREEK_LOCALE, locCache);
                // Decode the result.
                if (c < 0) {
                    // (not) original code point
                    result.appendCodePoint(~c);
                } else if(c<=UCaseProps.MAX_STRING_LENGTH) {
                    // The mapping has already been appended to result.
                } else {
                    // Append the single-code point mapping.
                    result.appendCodePoint(c);
                }
            }
            i = nextIndex;
            state = nextState;
        }
        return result.toString();
    }

    private static void show(String s) {
        String upper = toUpper(s);
        System.out.println(s + " →\n" + upper + '\n');
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        init();
        System.out.println();
        // http://bugs.icu-project.org/trac/ticket/5456
        show("άδικος, κείμενο, ίριδα");
        // https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=307039
        // https://bug307039.bmoattachments.org/attachment.cgi?id=194893
        show("Πατάτα");
        show("Αέρας, Μυστήριο, Ωραίο");
        show("Μαΐου, Πόρος, Ρύθμιση");
        show("ΰ, Τηρώ, Μάιος");
        show("άυλος");
        show("ΑΫΛΟΣ");
        show("Άκλιτα ρήματα ή άκλιτες μετοχές");
        // http://www.unicode.org/udhr/d/udhr_ell_monotonic.html
        show("Επειδή η αναγνώριση της αξιοπρέπειας");
        show("νομικού ή διεθνούς");
        // http://unicode.org/udhr/d/udhr_ell_polytonic.html
        show("Ἐπειδὴ ἡ ἀναγνώριση");
        show("νομικοῦ ἢ διεθνοῦς");
        // From Google bug report
        show("Νέο, Δημιουργία");
        // http://crbug.com/234797
        show("Ελάτε να φάτε τα καλύτερα παϊδάκια!");
        show("Μαΐου, τρόλεϊ");
        show("Το ένα ή το άλλο.");
        // http://multilingualtypesetting.co.uk/blog/greek-typesetting-tips/
        show("ρωμέικα");
    }
}

Data output

// U+0370..03FF
0x0370,  // Ͱ
0x0370,  // ͱ
0x0372,  // Ͳ
0x0372,  // ͳ
0,
0,
0x0376,  // Ͷ
0x0376,  // ͷ
0,
0,
0x037A,  // ͺ
0x03FD,  // ͻ
0x03FE,  // ͼ
0x03FF,  // ͽ
0,
0x037F,  // Ϳ
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ά
0,
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Έ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ή
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ί
0,
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ό
0,
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ύ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ώ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // ΐ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Α
0x0392,  // Β
0x0393,  // Γ
0x0394,  // Δ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ε
0x0396,  // Ζ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Η
0x0398,  // Θ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ι
0x039A,  // Κ
0x039B,  // Λ
0x039C,  // Μ
0x039D,  // Ν
0x039E,  // Ξ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ο
0x03A0,  // Π
0x03A1,  // Ρ
0,
0x03A3,  // Σ
0x03A4,  // Τ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Υ
0x03A6,  // Φ
0x03A7,  // Χ
0x03A8,  // Ψ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ω
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // Ϊ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // Ϋ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ά
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // έ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ή
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ί
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // ΰ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL,  // α
0x0392,  // β
0x0393,  // γ
0x0394,  // δ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ε
0x0396,  // ζ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL,  // η
0x0398,  // θ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ι
0x039A,  // κ
0x039B,  // λ
0x039C,  // μ
0x039D,  // ν
0x039E,  // ξ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL,  // ο
0x03A0,  // π
0x03A1,  // ρ
0x03A3,  // ς
0x03A3,  // σ
0x03A4,  // τ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL,  // υ
0x03A6,  // φ
0x03A7,  // χ
0x03A8,  // ψ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ω
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // ϊ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // ϋ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ό
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ύ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ώ
0x03CF,  // Ϗ
0x0392,  // ϐ
0x0398,  // ϑ
0x03D2,  // ϒ
0x03D2 | HAS_ACCENT,  // ϓ
0x03D2 | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // ϔ
0x03A6,  // ϕ
0x03A0,  // ϖ
0x03CF,  // ϗ
0x03D8,  // Ϙ
0x03D8,  // ϙ
0x03DA,  // Ϛ
0x03DA,  // ϛ
0x03DC,  // Ϝ
0x03DC,  // ϝ
0x03DE,  // Ϟ
0x03DE,  // ϟ
0x03E0,  // Ϡ
0x03E0,  // ϡ
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0x039A,  // ϰ
0x03A1,  // ϱ
0x03F9,  // ϲ
0x037F,  // ϳ
0x03F4,  // ϴ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ϵ
0,
0x03F7,  // Ϸ
0x03F7,  // ϸ
0x03F9,  // Ϲ
0x03FA,  // Ϻ
0x03FA,  // ϻ
0x03FC,  // ϼ
0x03FD,  // Ͻ
0x03FE,  // Ͼ
0x03FF,  // Ͽ
// U+1F00..1FFF
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ἀ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ἁ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἂ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἃ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἄ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἅ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἆ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἇ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ἀ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ἁ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἂ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἃ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἄ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἅ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἆ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἇ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ἐ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ἑ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἒ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἓ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἔ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἕ
0,
0,
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ἐ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ἑ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἒ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἓ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἔ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἕ
0,
0,
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ἠ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ἡ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἢ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἣ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἤ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἥ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἦ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἧ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ἠ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ἡ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἢ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἣ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἤ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἥ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἦ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἧ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ἰ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ἱ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἲ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἳ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἴ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἵ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἶ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ἷ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ἰ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ἱ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἲ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἳ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἴ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἵ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἶ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ἷ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL,  // ὀ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL,  // ὁ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὂ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὃ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὄ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὅ
0,
0,
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ὀ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ὁ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὂ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὃ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὄ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὅ
0,
0,
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ὐ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ὑ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὒ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὓ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὔ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὕ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὖ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὗ
0,
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ὑ
0,
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὓ
0,
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὕ
0,
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὗ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ὠ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ὡ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὢ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὣ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὤ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὥ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὦ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὧ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ὠ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ὡ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὢ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὣ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὤ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὥ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὦ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὧ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὰ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ά
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὲ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // έ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὴ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ή
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὶ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ί
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὸ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ό
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὺ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ύ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ὼ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ώ
0,
0,
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾀ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾁ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾂ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾃ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾄ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾅ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾆ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾇ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾈ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾉ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾊ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾋ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾌ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾍ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾎ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾏ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾐ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾑ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾒ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾓ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾔ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾕ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾖ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾗ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾘ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾙ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾚ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾛ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾜ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾝ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾞ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾟ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾠ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾡ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾢ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾣ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾤ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾥ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾦ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾧ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾨ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾩ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾪ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾫ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾬ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾭ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾮ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾯ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ᾰ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ᾱ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾲ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾳ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾴ
0,
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾶ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ᾷ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ᾰ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ᾱ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὰ
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ά
0x0391 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ᾼ
0,
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ι
0,
0,
0,
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ῂ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ῃ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ῄ
0,
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ῆ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ῇ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὲ
0x0395 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Έ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὴ
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ή
0x0397 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ῌ
0,
0,
0,
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ῐ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ῑ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // ῒ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // ΐ
0,
0,
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ῖ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // ῗ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ῐ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ῑ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὶ
0x0399 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ί
0,
0,
0,
0,
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ῠ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL,  // ῡ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // ῢ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // ΰ
0x03A1,  // ῤ
0x03A1,  // ῥ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ῦ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT | HAS_DIALYTIKA,  // ῧ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ῠ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ῡ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὺ
0x03A5 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ύ
0x03A1,  // Ῥ
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ῲ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ῳ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ῴ
0,
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // ῶ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI | HAS_ACCENT,  // ῷ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὸ
0x039F | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ό
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ὼ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_ACCENT,  // Ώ
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL | HAS_YPOGEGRAMMENI,  // ῼ
0,
0,
0,
// U+2126
0x03A9 | HAS_VOWEL,  // Ω

Sample results

The following results were reviewed and approved by a Greek linguist.

άδικος, κείμενο, ίριδα →
ΑΔΙΚΟΣ, ΚΕΙΜΕΝΟ, ΙΡΙΔΑ

Πατάτα →
ΠΑΤΑΤΑ

Αέρας, Μυστήριο, Ωραίο →
ΑΕΡΑΣ, ΜΥΣΤΗΡΙΟ, ΩΡΑΙΟ

Μαΐου, Πόρος, Ρύθμιση →
ΜΑΪΟΥ, ΠΟΡΟΣ, ΡΥΘΜΙΣΗ

ΰ, Τηρώ, Μάιος →
Ϋ, ΤΗΡΩ, ΜΑΪΟΣ

άυλος →
ΑΫΛΟΣ

ΑΫΛΟΣ →
ΑΫΛΟΣ

Άκλιτα ρήματα ή άκλιτες μετοχές →
ΑΚΛΙΤΑ ΡΗΜΑΤΑ Ή ΑΚΛΙΤΕΣ ΜΕΤΟΧΕΣ

Επειδή η αναγνώριση της αξιοπρέπειας →
ΕΠΕΙΔΗ Η ΑΝΑΓΝΩΡΙΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΑΞΙΟΠΡΕΠΕΙΑΣ

νομικού ή διεθνούς →
ΝΟΜΙΚΟΥ Ή ΔΙΕΘΝΟΥΣ

Ἐπειδὴ ἡ ἀναγνώριση →
ΕΠΕΙΔΗ Η ΑΝΑΓΝΩΡΙΣΗ

νομικοῦ ἢ διεθνοῦς →
ΝΟΜΙΚΟΥ Ή ΔΙΕΘΝΟΥΣ

Νέο, Δημιουργία →
ΝΕΟ, ΔΗΜΙΟΥΡΓΙΑ

Ελάτε να φάτε τα καλύτερα παϊδάκια! →
ΕΛΑΤΕ ΝΑ ΦΑΤΕ ΤΑ ΚΑΛΥΤΕΡΑ ΠΑΪΔΑΚΙΑ!

Μαΐου, τρόλεϊ →
ΜΑΪΟΥ, ΤΡΟΛΕΪ

Το ένα ή το άλλο. →
ΤΟ ΕΝΑ Ή ΤΟ ΑΛΛΟ.

ρωμέικα →
ΡΩΜΕΪΚΑ



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